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Trakya Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne-TURKEY


 Dr. Halil SÜREK



Dr. Halil SÜREK
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Thrace Agricultural Research Institute, Edirne, Turkey



Rice can be grown between 53 ‘ N and 35’ S latitudes  on all continents except, Antarctica. However, the highest yield can be obtained in temperate regions rather than Tropical areas, such as Australia, California, Egypt, and Turkey.



The genus Oryza belongs  to the tribe oryzae  in the subfamily Poadeae  of Gramineae. The genus oryza has two cultivated species, O. sativa and Oryza glaberrima. It has 21 species including wild species. Oryza sativa grown in all rice growing countries in the word, however, O. glaberrima grown sporadically in some West African countries, it is gradually being replaced by O sativa.

As a result of cultivation under different  environments in different areas of South, Southeast, and East Asia, three different  ecogeographic races of O sativa formed; these are Indica, Japonica, and Javonica. Indica is the oldest race. It was found in archeological remains 7000 B.C old at sites in Chekiang Province of China. Japonica was found in the cooler regions of China and it was also found at Hemutu. İt was later introduced into Korea, Japan, and Russia. The Javonica was found in Indonesia. O sativa and O glaberrima have the same evolutionary pathway.



 Growing period of rice plants changes between 100-210 days in tropical regions, the average is between 110-150 days. In temperate area, the average duration from sowing to harvest is about 130-150 days. Temperature and day length are the two environmental factors affecting the development of rice plant. Rice growing period can be divided into three main phases.

-Vegetative phase-from seed germination to panicle initiation.

- Reproductive phase-from panicle initiation to anthesis

- Ripening phase- from anthesis to full maturity.



 In order to germinate the rice seed in water, the temperature of water should be minimum between 9 and 13 ° C. The seeds can germinate in shorter time in high temperatures. The optimum germination temperature is between 30 and 35 ° C . After germination of seed, first coleoptile appears, and radicale follows it. The radicalus occurs in the lowest node of culm and they supplies nutrition for the seedlings until rooting. The coleoptile  is colorless or it has clear color at the beginning. During the developing of the coleoptile the nodes occur and they produce the leaves. The distance between nodes decreases through upper part of the plant. The seedlings are sensitive to low temperatures. If they exposed to low temperatures, under 12 ° C, they are getting yellowish and dyeing. The optimum temperature for seedling development is between 25 and 30 ° C.



 A secondary culm  appears between main culm and secondary leaf, this is tillering. The number of tillers changes depending on temperatures, solar radiation, nutrition, planting density, growing technique. One plant may produces average 8-12 tillers. Tillering period is approximately one month. If the water level is low in the field, the number of tillers increases. At the maximum tillering stage, tillers can not be distinguished from main culm. An homogenous maturation is required among the tillers, therefore a long tillering period is not desired.

In the tropics, the maximum tiller number is reached 40 to 60 days after transplanting, depending on the cultivar, plant spacing, and fertility  level. In temperate areas, where seed are drilled or broadcast densely, tillering is not important, and the maximum tiller number stage (one or three tillers) is reached within 30 days after seedling emergence.

The tiller number and the resulting panicle number per unit area are the main components of grain yield. 



Leaves are produced on the main culm at an average of one per week, but modified by environmental factors. A leaf consists of leaf blade and leaf sheath. Leaves are narrow and long form and they have veins in  parallel on leaf blade The interval between leaf production is shorter during early growth stage (4-5 days) and longer in later stage (8-9) days. The cultivars differ in  the number of leaves on the main culm.   The leaves sometimes have long and puffy hairs on leaf bodies in some varieties and they have rare and soft in some varieties.


Panicle Development

Te spikelets  become distinguishable and the panicle extends upward inside flag leaf sheath. The panicle continues to develop slowly. When it has grown to length of 5 cm (about 7 days after initiation  become visible to unaided eye). The spikelet primordial  differentiate and the number of spikelets is determined. During this part of reproductive stage, yield is adversely affected by stress exerted on the plant.



Flowering occurs after a short time of panicle exertion. Flowering lasts 3-5 days depending upon the panicle size At the beginning of anthesis, tip portion of lemma and palea begin to open, filament  elongate and begin to exert from the lemma and palea.

As the spikelet open wider, the tip of sigma may become visible. The filament elongate to bring the anthers out of the lemma and palea. Spikelet  then closes leaving the anthers outside.

In order to develop the grain, the floret of spikelet must be pollinated. The florets open from 09.00 to 13.00 under normal conditions. The spikelets remain open between 40 minutes and 2 hours. Rice is a self-pollinated plant. The open pollination may be occur at 0.04% rate.

A bright or sunny day is very important for good pollination. Fertilization completes after 30 minutes of pollination.    


Grain Ripening Stage

The grain develops after pollination and fertilization. Fertilization normally completed 5-6 hours after anthesis, then the fertilized ovary develops into brown rice. Starch portions are seen in the caryopsis after 3 days.

Before heading, a considerable amount of starch and sugar accumulated in  the culms and leaf sheath. This accumulated carbohydrates is translated  to the  grains during ripening . The photosynthetic production of three upper leaves of the plant is very important for ripening. The temperature, during the ripening stage determines the duration of ripening period. Duration of grain filling period, defined as the number of days required to reach maximum weight, it is 13 days at mean temperature of 28 ° C, and 33 days at 16 ° C for indica rice in tropical conditions, and japonica rice takes a little longer time to ripen, 18 days at a mean temperature of 28 ° C and 43 days at 16 ° C.




Ranges of the temperatures and their duration during growing season are very important for grain yield. The water temperature is important at seedling stage, on the other hand, weather temperature is important during panicle formation and flowering stages. Low temperatures delay the germination or stop. The minimum temperatures for germination are 9-13 ° C and optimum temperatures are 30-35° C. Germination not occur between 41-45 ° C. Rice seedlings are sensitive to low temperature (12° C). The seedlings damage or die in low temperatures. The optimum temperatures for seedlings is between 25 and 30 ° C.

Also the temperature is important for tillering. The tillering decreases in low temperatures and it stops under 19 ° C. The optimum temperatures for tillering is 25-32 ° C. The leafing percentage increases after 16° C, depending on temperature. Low temperatures cause shorter distance between internodes. The most sensitive time to low temperature is between panicle initiation and heading stages. The low temperature decreases the number of spikelets.

Te optimum temperature for flowering and pollination is between 27.8 and 32.5 ° C. Low temperature prolong the ripening period. This is useful  in terms of grain yield increase. Grain ripening lasts between 30-35 days in tropical  areas. This stage can last until 60 days in temperate regions. The minimum temperatures change between 13 and 14 ° C. If temperature is higher than 35 C during flowering stage, it increases the percentage of empty and unripened  spikelet.


Solar Radiation

Rice is grown under irrigated conditions in dry season in tropical areas. On the contrary, it is cultivated without irrigation during rainy season, however, the higher grain yield can obtain in dry season rather than rainy season due to higher solar radiation. The most sensitive stage of rice plant to solar radiation is between panicle initiation stage and 10 days before full maturation. The  solar radiation is very important for high grain yield during panicle formation stage.


Relative Humidity

High relative humidity causes fungal disease. Rice blast disease occurred in Edirne, in rice growing areas in 1995 and it caused average 20% yield loss in Edirne province. The reasons for this disease infection are heavy rain fall and high temperatures during July and August in 1995.



Heavy rainfall increases relative humidity. This encourages the diseases which occur in high humid conditions. It also reduces the solar radiation rate.

Rain causes lodging problem during harvesting time and it delays harvest. Therefore, the yield loss increases and the grain quality decreases.



If wind occurs after heading stage, it causes lodging and grain shedding. At the same time, the lodging increases the percentage of the spikelet sterility, the amount of poor ripened  and chalky  grains.


Soil Preparation

Soil levelling

Land levelling allows maintenance of an uniform water depth within the basin and greatly facilitates subsequent management practices for stand establishment, weed control and field drainage for harvest. Precision levelling also improves water use efficiency in rice.

Precision levelling decreases the number of levees required and increases productive land area and machinery efficiency.

Use of more sophisticated herbicide techniques and widespread use of new-dwarf varieties, which are less vigorous in the germination phase, require perfect levelling with gradations of not more than 5 cm.

Levelling is done with towed leveller blades after the first ploughing under dry conditions. The laser control levellers are used in the large farms. Use of towed levellers, equipped with laser control, made easy levelling. Extension of the plot areas to more than 4 to 5 ha has made it possible to increase the yield as it reduces the are accupied by the levees. However, it has also added to the difficulties inherent in maintaining the level and in controlling the water inside the basins. Before sowing, the plot is levelled again as second levelling and final grading under water in order to prepare a good seedbed. This second levelling is conducted with a plane or towed grader blades.


Foto. 1. Levelling with the laser controlled leveller.


Foto. 2. Tillage operation with  wallboard plough.



Field operations began with disposal of the straw by soil incorporation or removal from the field. The crop residues incorporation in the fall hastens straw decomposition and reduces the likelihood of algae growth and toxic gas formation in the following rice crop soil tillage dries rhizomes and other underground overwinting structures of perennial weeds. Tillage may be done in fall or may be postponed until spring under wet conditions, but generally begins as early as possible. This tillage is carried out in 20 to 25 cm depth with waldboard plough. Then the levees are erected, their size is 30 to 40 cm height and 40 to 50 cm length. After then, livelong is done and a shallow tillage is conducted with a disk harrow or a field cultivator.

Before flooding the field, the fertilizer and pre-emergence herbicide applications are done and incorporated into the soil with a spike-tooth harrow.


Planting time

The rice planting time varies from region to region in Turkey, it can be done after mid of April in the Aegean, Mediterranean, and Southeast Anatolia. The ideal period for rice planting in main rice producing regions, Marmara-Thrace and Black Sea, is May depending on the vegetative cycle of the rice varieties involved. The late varieties should be planted in the first part of May.

In Turkey the rice-growing period is 150-160 days from the beginning of May to mid-October. Thus, in order to obtain maximum yields and milling outturn, it is essential to sow and harvest rice on time.



Two planting method is used in Turkey, broadcasted and transplanting.



Pre-germinated seed is commonly used for direct seedling. Seed is  broadcasted by hand into the standing water. Some farmers also broadcast pre-soaked seed (ungerminated) with centrifugal broadcaster into water. For this, before planting, seed is soaked in water for 24 to 36 hours, drained for 18 to 24 hours, and then planted by centrifugal broadcaster. Generally, seed rate is 200 kg Per hectare for long-large grain size varieties and it is 170-180 kg Per hectare for medium grain type and 150 kg for small grain varieties.



Application of this method,  first the seedling grown in seed bed and then they are transplanted in filed after 20 days depending on the weather conditions, the seedlings may be ready in shorter time for transplanting in warmer conditions. The field preparation for transplanting rice must be done very well. Especially, the field should be properly levelled, The


 Foto. 3. Rice planting with centrifugal broadcaster

Foto. 4. Transplanting method.


seedlings are transplanted into one or two cm depth water in the field.. After, 5-6 days transplanting, the seedlings start to grow, and then the nitrogen fertilizer is applied.

If the seedlings are grown in the green house or plastic covered conditions in April and then, they era transplanted in the field in May, it may provides early maturation or harvesting. On the other hand, using transplanting method, rice planting time can be prolonged until the end of June, therefore, it will be possible to plant rice as a second crop, after winter crops, such as barley and wheat.

The disadvantages of transplanting method are more men power needs and high production cost.

In general, transplanting method is widely used in Asian countries. It is utilized by a few farmers in Thrace region.    . 



In general, nitrogen and phosphorus fertilizer is used for rice crop in Turkey. Rice crop suffers from zinc deficiency in some certain areas as well. Applying some zinc sulphate, the farmers overcome this problem. Rice soils are rich in potassium or they have enough available potassium, therefore no potassium application is done for rice crop.

Fertilizer rate is N150 P80 per hectare. Nitrogen is applied in  three portions; the first part is at the preplanting, second part at the tillering, and the third part at the panicle initiation. All phosphorus is given at preplanting as basal application. Under irrigation with continuous flooding, nitrogen is applied in the form of ammonium sulphate or urea.


Water management

Rice is cultivated under continuous flooding irrigation with full water control. The sowing is done in 5 to 10 cm depth of water. This water cover is maintained for three to five days and then the plot is drained, leaving the soil saturated with water for a few days. As rice plants appear, the plot is flooded gradually until the water depth reaches 10 to 15 cm. Water is maintained, circulating slowly at that depth until most grains reach  to the dough stage. 

Water depth may decrease only on the occasion of top-dressing with nitrogen fertilizer or water may be drained for post-germinating herbicide application. Drainage at any time during early growing stage should not be done, it may stimulate the germination and growth of new weeds. Early drainage  may also delay rice heading.

The timing of drainage for harvesting is critical, because residual moisture must be available throughout grain filling, but the soil should be dry enough at harvest to support heavy equipment. Draining too early results in incompletely filled kernels that break or crack in the harvester an produce low milling yield. Rice variety, soil type, and lateness of the season influence drainage strategy. In general, draining is done  for harvesting at 30 to 35  days after flowering in Turkey.


Weed Control

An array of grass, broadleaf and sedge weeds adapted to the aquatic environment must be controlled for optimum rice yields. The strategies integrating preventive weed control, crop or fallow rotation, appropriate water and fertilizer management and herbicides are widely used to control weeds in rice.

Watergrass (Echinocloa spp.) is the most competitive and difficult weed to control in Turkish rice fields. The principal grasses are Echinochloa crus-galli, Echinochloa colonum, Echinochloa oryzicola  and Echinochloa oryzoides.

Annual and perennial sedges and broadleaf weeds also infest rice fields in Turkey. The most important sedges are Cyperus difformis, Scirpus mucranatus. and Scirpus maritimus.

The most important annual broadleaf weeds are Alisma plantago-aquatica, Lindernia dubia, Ammannia coccinea and Butamus umbellatus.


Foto. 5. Watergrass (Echinocloa spp.)

Foto. 6. Cyperus difformis.


Good water management is an important factor in weed control in direct seeded flooded rice. Seeds are broadcasted into standing water. The water level is increased gradually as the rice grows. Because the field can not  be flooded until seedlings are established, some weeds will grow along with the rice. After rice establishment, the water level should be raised as rapidly as possible without damaging young rice seedlings, then kept uniform and continuous. The shallow (lees than 2.5 cm), continuous flooding facilitates weed growth. When the soil surface is exposed to air. That creates an ideal condition for weed germination and growth.

Towed or mounted implements are used for the operation in herbicide application in large farm. Liquid formulations are distributed with boom sprayers 12 to 14 m wide, cone- or fan-shaped nozzles. Doses of 400  litres of water for hectare are used at a pressure of 3 to 100 bar.

The farmers use knasack sprayer or atomiser in herbicide application in small farm. The some farmers also mix herbicide with fertilizer and then, they broadcast the diluted product in the paddy.

In order to control the weeds the herbicide applications are done at the pre-emergence or post-emergence stages. The application at the pre-emergence stage is done in dry conditions before flooding. The post-emergence application is done into standing water or drained field.

Foto. 7. Alisma plantago-aquatica

Foto. 8. Lindernia dubia.


Foto. 9. Herbicide application with tractor.


The principal rice herbicides are used in Turkey are;


Propanil: Propanil is a contact herbicide that can be applied at post emergence stage. It is effective against several grassy weeds.

Molinate: Molinate is a selective herbicide  for controlling Echinochloa spp.

Thiobencarb:  It is more effective on grasses and sedges.

Bentazon: Bentazon is used for a number of broadleaf weeds and sedges.

Bensulfuron: Bensulfuron controls many broadleaf weeds and sedges.

Bispyribac sodium: This herbicide is recommended for Echinochloa spp. and sedges

Cyhalopob-Butyl: It is used to control Echinocloa spp and Digitaria paspaloides.

Ethoxysulfuron: Ethoxysulfuron controls broadleaf weeds and sedges.

Cyclosulfomoron: Broadleaf and Sedges

Profoxydim: Echinochloa spp

Azimsulfuron: Echinochloa spp., broadleaf and Sedges     

Halosulfuron-methyl: Broadleaf and Sedges

Penoxsulam: Echinochloa spp., broadleaf and Sedges

Fenoxaprop-p-ethyl: Leptochloa fascicularis


The farmers should take into account the following points for a successful weed control.           

  • Herbicides should be applied at the right stage of weed and rice growth, before the weeds become too large.
  • Application should be done at the right rate.
  • The right herbicide should be selected.
  • Water depth and flow management after application are an important aspect of successful weed control.


Foto. 10. Leaf lesion of the balas

Foto. 11. Node blast.



Diseases of the rice plant are major constrains to production in most areas where the crop is grown, the infectious diseases are those caused by pathogens or transmissible biological agents, such as fungi, bacteria, viruses, and nematodes.


Fungal Diseases

 Blast (Pyricularia oryzae)

The pathogen produces lesions on all parts of the shoot, but rarely attacks the leaf sheath. When lesions first appear, they are often white to gray-green with darker green border. The older lesions are generally whitish to gray with necrotic border. At the same time, this disease can be seen on culm and panicle of the plant. Node infection is more common than internodal infection, and the culm can break at the infected node. Infection of the panicle neck node called neck blast or rotten neck blast.

In order to control the blast disease, planting should be done on time, not create high plant density, nitrogen fertilizer should be applied at proper rate and on time. Excessive nitrogen application   in early stage of the growth increases the fungal disease risk.  If the disease symptoms or lesions are seen on the plants, the fungicide should  be treated as foliar  application.


 Foto. 12. Neck blast

Foto. 13. Heavy leaf blast infection.


 Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae)

The fungus produces small circular brown lesions on seedlings, which may girdle the coleoptile and cause distortion of the primary and secondary leaves. In some cases, the fungus may also infect and cause a black discoloration of the roots. The infected seedlings are stunted or killed. On the leaves of older plants, the fungus produces circular to oval lesions that have a light brown to gray center surrounded by a reddish brown margin.

Brown spot is more an indicator of nutritional or physiological disorder than a pathological disease. Chemical seed treatment is recommended to control seedling  At the same time, nitrogen application should be done on time and at proper rate to reduce secondary foliar infection.


Foto. 14. Brown Spot (Helminthosporium oryzae)


  Foto15. Bakanea disease

 Foto. 16. Foot Rot Disease (Fusarium moniliforme .)


Foot Rot Disease or Bakanea (Fusarium moniliforme Sheld.).

The classic syndrome associated with bakanea an elongated,  slender, pale seedlings that are conspicuous next to health seedlings, infected seedlings may also be stunted and chlorotic, exhibiting root and crown root. Infected seedlings  usually are killed, older plants can also be infected and may exhibit abnormal elongation until produce adventitious roots at the lower node of the culm., the plants that survive until maturity, are sterile and produce no panicle or empty panicle.

As the diseased plants senesce and die, mycelium of the fungus may emerge from the node and sporulation of the pathogen may be easily visible above the water level.

Foot rot is a seedborn disease. Thus, seed treatment must be done to control it. Also, some cultural control methods should be taken into considerations, such as crop rotation, using health seed, not use excessive nitrogen, and   sowing  resistant variety etc.



More than 130 species of plant-parasitic  nematodes have been associated with rice or soils. A parasitic relationship with rice, however, has been demonstrated for only a few of these nematode species. One of them is whit tip nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi Christie), it is the most dangerous   one. This nematode is seen in many rice growing countries and it may cause yield loss between 7% and 50%. Its symptom, the tip of leaf, 3-5 cm part of leaf whitened and then this part dries. The upper leaves are the most affected and the flag leaf is often twisted hindering the emergence of the panicle. The other symptoms include reduction in the length of panicle, reduction in the number of grains per panicle, late ripening and maturation, and production of tillers from the upper nodes.

This nematode transmitted by seed. At the same time, it survives on debris and on weeds in the filed during off season or winter time. The nematode is inactive under hull of rice seed, and it emerges from the seed after planting. If the atmospheric humidity is under 70%, the nematode is inactive. It dies over 43  °C temperature. In order to control the nematode, for small quantity seed, hot water treatment is recommended. For this, first seeds

Foto. 17. The symptoms of whit tip nematode (Aphelenchoides besseyi)


are presoaked for 24 hours in cool water, and then a hot-water treatment is carried out, the presoaked seeds are treated to hot water at 52-57 ° C for 15 minutes




 Rice harvesting time varies from September 15 to October 30. Rice is harvested at 22 to 24 percent grain moisture content. Harvesting the grain too wet does not allow maximum kernel development and requires excessive drying costs. Harvesting the grain too dry increases the breakage during harvesting and milling. The recommended harvesting time is at 45 to 50 days after flowering. Early harvesting may reduce the field yield of paddy and head yield of rice owing to the presence of immature kernels. Late harvesting may also reduce yields because of grain shattering and lodging.

Rice is directly harvested with combine and the crop is dried to a storable moisture of 13 to 14 percent.

Foto. 18. Rice harvesting with combiner.



After harvesting the moisture content of grains is high, it is about 25-26 percent, thus it should be dried within 12-24 hours after harvesting.. The moisture content of grains should be reduced to 14%, before storage. If the grain moisture content do not reduced to a storable level, the deteriation occurs  in grains due to microorganism and insect activities.

The drying is basically the transfer of heat by converting the water in grain to a vapor and transferring into the atmosphere.

Sun-drying was using for rice in 15-20 years ago, for this, the harvested rice was placed in loose bundles and left to dry in the filed for several days. After then, the rice bundles were carrying to the trashing   area and it was trashing.

After combine harvesting started, two drying methods are used, Sun-drying and mechanical drying. Sun-drying : immediately after threshing, the wet grains are spread on drying surface for drying, such as concrete, pavement, and plastic sheets. Repeated stirring is necessary to obtain uniform drying.

Mechanical drying:  Combine-harvested rice is usually dried by passing it trough a multipass  heated-air driver at temperatures ranging from 38 ° C to 60  ° C, or it may be put into bins, where either heated or unheated air is passed through it until the moisture content is low enough for safe storage. The crop temperature is maintained at 30-35 ° C during drying and drying process may take between 4 and 8 hours depending on moisture content of grains. If the crop dried at high temperatures, the breakage increases and head rice yield reduces during process. The drying temperature for seed crop should be lower than commercial crop. Otherwise, the germination vigor of the seed may decrease. 

Foto. 19. Sun-drying.

Foto. 20. Mechanical drying



Before storage, the moisture content of crop should be reduce under 14%. If the moisture content is not be reduced, the deterioration may occur in grains. The relative humidity in the store should be under 60%.

Foreign material, pieces of cracked grain, and trash tend to collect under discharge spouts in bins. These materials provide an excellent breeding ground for microorganisms. That is why, the crop must be cleaned very well before storage.

If the rice is stored in sacks, the sacks should be put on the platform, This should be made using wood material. Thus, the sacks are not exposed to the wet flour. At the same time, an air circulation provided between the flour and the sacks. Also, the temperatures inside the store must be maintained low as much as possible. The modern storage facilities are made as silos using concrete and galvanized materials. These silos maintain stable the temperature



Abiotic   Constraints of Rice in Turkey

  1. Cold Water and Weather Temperatures: Cold water especially supplied by waterpump from underground or dams, affects the rice crop at the germination and seedling phases. It causes difficulties for a good stand establishment. Low weather temperatures give damage to rice crop during the different stages of development at germinating, seedling, panicle formation, flowering, and pollination.
  2. 2. High Temperature: High temperature causes spikelet sterility in south-eastern part of Turkey. Rice is grown there in many micro climatic regions.
  3. Drought or Water Shortage: Rice is grown under continuous irrigation with full water control. Sometimes rice crop can suffer from drought or water shortage. The reasons for this problem are; (1) the farmers sow rice in excessive areas, when rice price is very high and profitable in the market. Thus, available irrigation water can not be enough for rice crop, (2) low water accumulation in the dams or less water flowing in the rivers due to low rainfall.
  4. Salinity and Alkalinity: Salinity and alkalinity affect the rice crop in some certain areas. The soil contains high level salt in those areas. Also, irrigation water sometimes contains high level salt. However, this is not very important problem in Turkish rice production.
  5. 5. Micronutrient Disorders: Only Zn deficiency has been recognised in the rice fields in Turkey. The other micronutrient disorders have not been observed. Zinc deficiency constrains considerably the rice crop in certain areas. However, applying Zn, the farmers solve this problem.



  • Limited quantities of irrigation water
  • Red rice
  • Small farm size.
  • High input cost.


Limited quantities of irrigation water

Irrigation water is the most limiting factor for expanding the area under rice cultivation. Although the land structure and climate are suitable for rice growing in many micro and macro climatical regions.. Due to Shortage of irrigation water, it is not possible to expand rice cultivating area. Rice supplies good income when we compare it with other crops, many farmers are very eager to produce rice.  It makes too expensive the cost of rice land to buy or rent.


Red Rice

Rice is cultivated without rotation in some areas in Turkey. As long as the farmers find the water for rice irrigation, they continue growing rice. On the other hand, the rice farmers are not used to changing their seed with certified seed. Therefore, red rice became a great problem in Turkish rice production in the last years. The red rice reduces field and milled yields, and market quality of rice crop. Due to red rice problem, the farmers sometimes sell their product with very low   price.


Small Farm Size

In general, the average farm size is very small in Turkey. The most of rice farmers have 2 to 3 ha. area for rice production. Only a few farmers have 100 to 200 ha. area. The small farmer can not save the money to make investment for rice cultivation equipment. Thus, they may not have suitable equipment for rice farming. They use unsuitable equipment or manpower for many operations. This increases production cost.


High Input Cost.

When we compared   with the other rice growing countries, the input costs are higher in Turkey, paid for oil, chemicals,  fertilizers, and land.