Country Official Name: Islamic Republic of Afghanistan
Official languages: Pashto-Dari
Government Type: Islamic Republic
Major Cities: Kabul, Kandahar, Herat, Mazar-eSharif, Jalalabad
Provinces: 1.Badakhsan, 2.Badghis, 3.Baghlan, 4.Balkh, 5.Bamian, 6.Farah, 7.Faryab, 8.Ghazni, 9.Ghowr 10.Herat, 11.Helmand, 12.Jowzjan, 13.Kabul, 14.Kapisa, 15.Konar, 16.Kondoz, 17.Laghman, 18.Logar Nangarhar, 19.Nemroz, 20.Oruzgan, 21.Paktia, 22.Paktika, 23.Parwan, 24.Qandahar, 25.Samangan 26.Sar-e-pul, 27.Takhar, 28.Wardak, 28.Zabol
Ethnic Groups: Pashton, Tajik, Hazara, Uzbek, Turkmen, Aimaq, Baluch, and Nooristani
Holidays and National Days: Nowroz, Eid al-Adha, Ashura, Mwlood al-Nabi, Jashn-e-Esteghlal
Airport: Kabul International Airport
Area: 652,864 km2 (41st)
Area Under Rice Cultivation: 160000 h
Rice Production Season: 1.Planting: May -June 2. Harvesting: Oct. -Nov.
Agricultural Website: http://mail.gov.af/en
Population: 31,822,848 (40th, 2015)
Currency: Afghani (AFN)
Calling Code: +93
Introduction. Afghanistan officially the Islamic Republic of Afghanistan, is a landlocked country located within South Asia and Central Asia. It has a population of approximately 31 million people, making it the 42 most populous country in the world. It is bordered by Pakistan in the south and east; Iran in the west; Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, and Tajikistan in the north; and China in the far northeast. Its territory covers 652,000 km2 (252,000 sq. mi), making it the 41 largest country in the world.
Agricultural products in Afghanistan are produced mainly in two agro-ecological zones, namely, irrigated lands and rainfed lands. Major crops in particular wheat and rice are cultivated under rainfed condition especially in northern region at the altitude of 900 to 2,000m above sea level, while cultivation under irrigated can be seen in all over the country.
Geography. A landlocked mountainous country with plains in the north and southwest, Afghanistan is variously described as being located withinCentral Asia or South Asia. It is part of the US coined Greater Middle East Muslim world, which lies between latitudes 29° N and 39° N, and longitudes 60° E and 75° E. The country's highest point is Noshaq, at 7,492 m (24,580 ft) above sea level.
Climate. It has a continental climate with harsh winters in the central highlands, the glaciated northeast (around Nuristan), and the Wakhan Corridor, where the average temperature in January is below −15 °C (5 °F), and hot summers in the low-lying areas of the Sistan Basin of the southwest, the Jalalabad basin in the east, and the Turkestan plains along the Amu River in the north, where temperatures average over 35 °C (95 °F) in July.
Despite having numerous rivers and reservoirs, large parts of the country are dry. The endorheic Sistan Basin is one of the driest regions in the world. Aside from the usual rainfall, Afghanistan receives snow during the winter in the Hindu Kush and Pamir Mountains, and the melting snow in the spring season enters the streams. However, two-thirds of the country's water flows into the neighboring countries of Iran, Pakistan, and Turkmenistan. The northeastern Hindu Kush mountain range, in and around the Badakhshan Province of Afghanistan, is in a geologically active area where earthquakes may occur almost every year.
Agriculture. Agriculture is critical to Afghanistan’s food security and a key driver of economic growth. Sixty percent of Afghans rely on agriculture for their livelihoods and their family’s sustenance. The sector accounts for about 40 percent of Afghanistan’s gross domestic product. Prior to decades of conflict, Afghanistan’s agricultural products earned a global reputation for excellence, particularly almonds, pomegranates, pistachios, raisins, and apricots. Agricultural products in Afghanistan are produced mainly in two agro-ecological zones, namely, irrigated lands and rain-fed lands.
Rice. Afghanistan is a mountainous country, whose only about 12% of Total area is arable land (65209100 ha) (5% irrigated and 7% are rain fed Agriculture system). More than 80% of agricultural output is being derived from 5% of irrigated land. Wheat is the main cereal and staple crop, counting for about 70% of the total cultivated area of field crops, other important crops include rice, barley, maize and legumes food (chickpea, bean, lentil, and mung bean).
Rice is the second important food crop of the population, after wheat with total cultivation area of 190000 ha. In 2003, the per capita consumption of milled rice was 17 kg/year. Rice is produced all over the world and the straw is used for animal feeding, especially during the winter because fresh grass is not available.