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Azerbaijan

Azerbaijan Flag

Country Official Name: Republic of Azerbaijan 

Official Language: Azerbaijani 

Government: Democratic, constitutional, secular and unitary republic. 

Capital: Baku

Major Cities: Agdam, Barda, Ali Bayramli, Ganja, Khankendi, Lankaran

Provinces(Districts): 1. Absheron, 2. Aghjabadi, 3. Agdam,  4. Agdash, 5. Agstafa, 6. Agsu, 7. Shirvan (city), 8. Astara, 9. Baku (city), 10. Balakan, 11. Barda, 12. Beylagan, 13. Bilasuvar, 14. Jabrayil, 15. Jalilabad, 16. Dashkasan, 17. Shabran, 18. Fizuli, 19. Gadabay, 20. Ganja (city), 21. Goranboy, 22. Goychay, 23. Hajigabul, 24. Imishli, 25. Ismailli, 26.Kalbajar, 27. Kurdamir, 28. Lachin, 29. lankaran, 30. Lankaran (city), 31. Lerik, 32. Masally, 33. Mingachevir (city), 34. Naftalan (city), 35. Neftchala, 36. Oghuz, 37. Qabala, 38. Qakh, 39. Qazakh, 40. Gobustan, 41. Quba, 42. Qubadli, 43. Qusar istrict, 44. Saatly, 45. Sabirabad, 46. Shaki, 47. Shaki (city), 48. Salyan, 49. Shamakhi, 50. Shamkir, 51. amukh, 52. Siazan, 53. Sumqayit (city), 54. Shusha, 55. Shusha (city), 56. Tartar, 57. Tovuz, 58. Ujar, 59. Khachmaz, 60. Khankendi (city), 61. Goygol, 62. Khizi, 63. Khojali, 64. Khojavend, 65. Yardymli, 66. Yevlakh, 67. Yevlakh (city), 68. Zangilan, 69. Zaqatala, 70. Zardab, 

Ethnic Groups: Azerbaijanis, Lezguins, Russian, Armenians, Talyshs, avars, Tatars, Ukranian, Sakhurs, Georgians, Kurds, Tats, Jews, and Udins.

Holidays: New Year, Women’s Day, Novruz Bayrami, Day of the Victory over Fascism, Republic Day, National Salvation Day, rmed Forces Day, National Independence Day, Constitution Day, National Revival Day, Day of  Solidarity of Azerbaijanis throughout the World.

Airport: Baku Heydar Aliyev international airport

Area: 86,600 km  (114)

Agricultural Website: http://www.agro.gov.az

Population: 9 494 600 (89)

Currency: Manat (AZN)

Calling Code: +994

Time Zone: GMT +4 =>

Introduction. Azerbaijan, officially the Republic of Azerbaijan is a contiguous transcontinental presidential republic in the Caucasus region, situated at the crossroads of Eastern Europe and Western Asia. It is bounded by the Caspian Sea to the east, Russia to the north, Georgia to the northwest, Armenia to the west and Iran to the south. The exclave of Nakhchivan is bounded by Armenia to the north and east, Iran to the south and west, while having a short border with Turkey in the northwest.

The Azerbaijan Democratic Republic proclaimed its independence in 1918 and has the distinction as the first Muslim-majority democratic and secular republic. It was also the first Muslim-majority country to have operas, theaters and modern universities.

The country was incorporated into the Soviet Union in 1920 as the Azerbaijan Soviet Socialist Republic. Azerbaijan proclaimed its independence in October 1991, before the official dissolution of the USSR. Earlier, in September 1991, the disputed Armenian-majority Nagorno-Karabakh region re-affirmed its willingness to create a separate state as the Nagorno-Karabakh Republic. Nagorno Karabakh Republic has not been diplomatically recognized by any other state. As such, the region, effectively independent since the beginning of the Nagorno Karabakh War in 1991, is largely considered de jure part of Azerbaijan until a final solution to its status is found through negotiations facilitated by the OSCE.

According to a modern etymology, the name of Azerbaijan derives from that of Atropates, a Persian satrap under the Achaemenid Empire, who was later reinstated as the satrap of Media under Alexander the Great. The original    etymology of this name is thought to have its roots in the once-dominant Zoroastrian religion. In the Avesta, Frawardin Yasht ("Hymn to the Guardian Angels"), there is a mention of âterepâtahe ashaonô fravashîm ýazamaide, which literally translates from Avestan as "we worship the Fravashi of the holy Atropatene".

Geography. Azerbaijan is in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia, straddling Western Asia and Eastern Europe. It lies between latitudes 38° and42° N, and    longitudes 44° and 51° E. The total length of Azerbaijan's land borders is 2,648 km (1,645 mi), of which 1007 kilometers are with Armenia, 756 kilometers with Iran, 480 kilometers with Georgia, 390 kilometers with Russia and 15 kilometers with Turkey. The coastline stretches for 800 km (497 mi), and the length of the widest area of the Azerbaijani section of the Caspian Sea is 456 km (283 mi). The territory of Azerbaijan extends 400 km (249 mi) from north to south, and 500 km (311 mi) from west to east.

Three physical features dominate Azerbaijan: the Caspian Sea, whose shoreline forms a natural boundary to the east; the Greater Caucasus mountain range to the north; and the extensive flatlands at the country's center. There are also three mountain ranges, the Greater and Lesser Caucasus, and the Talysh Mountains, together covering approximately 40 percent of the country. The highest peak of Azerbaijan is mount Bazardüzü (4,466 m), while the lowest point lies in the Caspian Sea (−28 m). Nearly half of all the mud volcanoes on Earth are concentrated in Azerbaijan, these volcanoes were also among nominees for the new 7 Wonders of Nature.

The main water sources are surface waters. However, only 24 of the 8,350 rivers are greater than 100 km (62 mi) in length. All the rivers drain into the Caspian Sea in the east of the country. The largest lake is Sarysu (67 km²), and the longest river is Kur (1,515 km), which is transboundary. Azerbaijan's four main   islands in the Caspian Sea have a combined area of over thirty square ilometers.

Since the independence of Azerbaijan in 1991, the Azerbaijani government has taken drastic measures to preserve the environment of Azerbaijan. But national protection of the environment started to truly improve after 2001 when the state budget increased due to new revenues provided by the Baku-Tbilisi-Ceyhan pipeline. Within four years protected areas doubled and now make up eight percent of the country's territory. Since 2001 the government has set up seven large reserves and almost doubled the sector of the budget earmarked forenvironmental protection.

Agriculture. At the beginning of 2007 there were 4,755,100 hectares of utilized agricultural area. Azerbaijan's agricultural scientific research institutes are focused on meadows and pastures, horticulture and subtropical crops, green vegetables, viticulture and wine-making, cotton growing and medicinal plants. In some lands, it is profitable to grow grain, potatoes, sugar beets, cotton, rice, and tobacco. Livestock, dairy products, and wine and spirits are also important farm products. The Caspian fishing industry is concentrated on the dwindling stocks of sturgeon and beluga. The varied climate allows cultivation of a wide variety of crops, ranging from peaches to almonds and from rice to cotton.

Rice .There are three groups of agricultural regions in  Azerbaijan according to the level of  specialization.

1. Irrigated regions of agriculture  (Kur-Araz, Lenkeran, Samur-Devechi lowlands, and Araz    River plains in Nakhchivan),

2. Agricultural regions without irrigation (foothills and middle highlands),

3. Pastures and regions of animal husbandry,

Azerbaijan has not specialized in the silkworm breeding, apiculture, and paddy growing fields of agriculture yet. The fully-specialized fields of agriculture are cotton-growing, horticulture, vim- growing, vegetable-growing, tobacco-growing, etc.

There are favorable soil-climate conditions for the development of agriculture in Azerbaijan. 61% of agricultural products belong to plant growing, and 39% goes to animal husbandry. Plant-growing   developed more than animal husbandry due to the large cultivable lands and high total active temperature in Azerbaijan plains. The agriculture in Azerbaijan has two broad fields-plant growing and animal husbandry. 

The rice production dynamics was fluctuating in Azerbaijan from 1990 till 2010 (Table 2).  At the moment, rice production can’t supply demands of population in Azerbaijan.

Azerbaijan Government has taken care about this area recently. A  state programme was adopted to supply the food demands of population. The main part of this project is enlarging  paddy growing  areas in Astara, Lenkoran, Agdash, Zardab, Udjar, Yevlax, Sheki and Salyan regions. Then, from 2007 new measures connecting with paddy growing began in Lenkoran Regional Agricultural Scientific Centre. Highly fruitful lines have been bought. These lines have been planted in the South regions, such as, Astara, Lenkoran and Masalli. Among many lines, two lines of paddy are very suitable for these regions  including “Avangard” and “Istiglal”.