Country Official Name: Kyrgyz Republic
Official Language: Kyrgyz(state), Russian (official)
Government Type: Unitary parliamentary republic
Major Cities: Osh, Talas, Naryn, Jalalabad, Karakol, Batken,
Provinces: Chuy, Jlal-Abad, Naryn, Osh, Talas, Issyk-Kul, Batken
Ethnic Groups: kyrgyz, Russian, Uzbek, Ukranian, German, and others
Holidays: January 1 New Year's Day, January 7 EasternOrthodox Christmas, February 23 Fatherland Defender's Day, March 8International Women's Day, March 21–23 Nooruz Mairamy,
April 7 Day of National Revolution, May 1 International Workers' Day, May 5Constitution Day, May 9 Great Patriotic War Against Fascism Victory Day ,June 1 Children's Day, August 31 Independence Day, September 1 Knowledge Day, September 23 Kyrgyz Language Day, Defined by lunar calendar Orozo Ait, Celebrated 70 days after the Orozo Ait Kurman Ait October 5 Teachers' Day, November 7 Day of the Great October Socialist Revolution
Airport: Manas International Airport of Bishkek
Useful Link: State Committee for Tourism Sports: ww.mert.kg/tourism/ (Russian)
Religion: Islam. Russian Orthodoxy
Area: 199,951 km2 (86 )
Area Under Rice Cultivation: 6000 ha
Population: 5,895,100 (112 , 2015)
Calling Code: +996
Intoduction. Kyrgyzstan, officially the Kyrgyz Republic, formerly known as Kirghizia, is a country located in Central Asia. Landlocked and mountainous, Kyrgyzstan is bordered by Kazakhstan to the north, Uzbekistan to the west, Tajikistan to the southwest and China to the east. Its capital andlargest city is Bishkek. Kyrgyzstan has historically been at the crossroads of several great civilizations, namely as part of the Silk Road and other commercial and cultural routes. Though long inhabited by a succession of independent tribes and clans, Kyrgyzstan has periodically come under foreign domination due to its strategic location, attaining sovereignty as a nation-state only after the breakup of the Soviet Union in 1991. "Kyrgyz" is believed to have been derived from the Turkic word for "forty", in reference to the forty clans of Manas, a legendary hero who united forty regional clans against the Uyghurs. The 40-ray sun on the flag of Kyrgyzstan is a reference to those same forty tribes and the graphical element in the sun's center depicts the wooden crown of a yurt – a portable dwelling traditionally used by nomads in the steppes of Central Asia. Kyrgyzstan is the agrarian country. In countryside lives 65 percent of all population and the Agriculture provide 35 percent of the Internal Total Product of the country.
Geography. Kyrgyzstan is a landlocked country in Central Asia, bordering Kazakhstan, China, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan. It lies between latitudes 39°and 44° N, and longitudes 69° and 81° E. It is farther from the sea than any other individual country, and all its rivers flow into closed drainage systems which do not reach the sea. The mountainous region of the Tian Shan covers over 80% of the country (Kyrgyzstan is occasionally referred to as "the Switzerland of Central Asia", as a result), with the remainder made up of valleys and basins. Issyk-Kul Lake in the north-eastern Tian Shan is the largest lake in Kyrgyzstan and the second largest mountain lake in the world after Titicaca. The highest peaks are in the Kakshaal-Too range, forming the Chinese border. Peak Jengish Chokusu, at 7,439 m (24,406 ft), is the highest point and is considered by geologists to be the northernmost peak over 7,000 m (22,966 ft) in the world. Heavy snowfall in winter leads to spring floods which often cause serious damage downstream. The runoff from the mountains is also used for hydro-electricity. Bishkek in the north is the capital and largest city, with approximately 900,000 inhabitants (as of 2005). The second city is the ancient town of Osh, located in the Fergana Valley near the border with Uzbekistan. The principal river is the Kara Darya, which flows west through the Fergana Valley into Uzbekistan. Across the border in Uzbekistan it meets another major Kyrgyz river, the Naryn. The confluence forms the Syr Darya, which originally flowed into the Aral Sea. As of 2010, it no longer reaches the sea, as its water is withdrawn upstream to irrigate cotton fields in Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, and southern Kazakhstan. The Chu River also briefly flows through Kyrgyzstan before entering Kazakhstan.
Climate. The climate varies regionally. The south-western Fergana Valley is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching 40 °C (104 °F). The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period.
Agriculture. in Kyrgyzstan is a significant sector of the economy. According to the CIA World Factbook, it comprises 20.2% of the total GDP and occupies 48% of the total labor force. Only 6.8% of the total land area is used for crop cultivation, but 44% of the land is used as pastures for livestock. Because of the many mountains of Kyrgyzstan, animal husbandry remains a significant part of the agricultural economy. Cultivation is centered in the Ferghana Valley, Talas Province, and Chuy Province. Among Kyrgyzstan's agricultural products are tobacco, cotton, potatoes, vegetables, grapes, fruits, and berries. As far as total production, the largest crop is assorted types of animal fodder to feed the livestock of the country. The second largest crop is winter wheat, followed by barley, corn, and rice. Significant animal derived products include sheep, goats, cattle, and wool. Chickens, horses, and pigs are also present. In some regions, yaks are herded and bred. Of these, the top products for export are cotton and tobacco. Meat is also exported, but in less significant quantities. However, the country has over 9 million hectares of pasture and a favorable environment for the development of animal husbandry. Recently Kyrgyzstan concluded accords to export meat to Saudi Arabia from September, 2012.
Rice. Kyrgyzstan is the agrarian country. 65 percent of all population lives in the countryside and agriculture provides 35 percent of the Internal Total Product. In the North of Kyrgyzstan, the basic areas of arable land are occupied by sugar beet, cereal crops, leguminous and forage crops, and also potato, vegetable and fruits. Rice is a minor crop planted to about 6,000 ha occupying a very small percentage of the 10% of cultivable area (almost 90% of Kyrgyzstan is mountainous and only 10% is cultivable). Most of its rice area planted to traditional varieties (brown and white rice) is located in the flatter Jalal-Abad province. Farm sizes are small (1-3ha) with reported national average yield of 3.8t/ha. Rice cropping season is from May to October. There is a great potential to expand rice production considering the availability of suitable lands, water for irrigation, longer solar radiation with cooler nights from June to October and possible export market. However, there are a lot of production as well as program constraints that need to be addressed to improve rice production. Being a minor crop, there is no dedicated program, almost nil budget and human resources to support rice R&D.
With adequate and proper support, the current rice production practices can still be further improved through planting the most suitable varieties with better yield and eating quality, appropriate crop and water management practices, including appropriate bund construction, and post production practices (milling and storage). Rice basically is sowed in the South of Kyrgyzstan; in the Osh, Dzhalal-Abad and Batken areas. In the last years, rice planting area, productivity and total harvesting area increased. The Dzhalal-Abad is the country’s main rice area (Ozgen and Suzak). Ozgen: In Ozgen, rice area is about 2,500 ha, with full irrigation, direct seeded, and cultivated by traditional methods. The main rice varieties are indigenous and brown. Suzak: This region produced mainly traditional direct seeded white rice with some portion planted to brown rice, fully irrigated. At present in Kyrgyzstan old varieties of rice Zarcha, Uzgensky, Tuyatish and Bezostyi are cultivated. Variety Zarcha is an ancestor of the most widespread variety Uzgensky arpa-shaly. The variety is resistant to lodging that allows avoiding the grain losses in the field. Potential productivity reaches to 4,0 tons/hectares.