Country Official Name: Republic of Tajikistan
Official Language: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business, Uzbek
Government: Legal system, branches of the government
Major Cities: Tursunzade, Panjakent, Kurgan-Tyube, Kulyab, Nurek, Khorogh
Provinces: Khatlon,Sugd,Velayate-Kuhistoni-Badakhshon, Navahi-Atraf, Dushanbe
Ethnic Groups: Tjiks, Uzbeks, Russian, and others
Holidays: January 1 New Year's Day, March 8 International Woman's Day, March 20 - March 22 Persian New Year, May 1 International Lab our Day, May 9 Victory Day, June 27 National Unity Day September 9 Independence Day November 6 Constitution Day November 9 National Reconciliation Day date varies Eid al-Fitr date varies Eid ul-Adha
Airport: Dushanbe International Airport
Area: 143,100 km (96)
Area Under Rice Cultivation: 10800 ha
Agricultural Website: www.moa.tj/Eng
Population: 8,208,000 (98)
Currency: Somoni (TJS)
Calling Code: +992
Introduction. Tajikistan, officially the Republic of Tajikistan, is a mountainous landlocked sovereign country in Central Asia. With an estimated 8 million people in 2013, it is the 98th most populous country and with an area covering 143,100 km (55,300 sq mi), it is the 96th largest country in the world in terms of area. It is bordered by Afghanistan to the south, Uzbekistan to the west, Kyrgyzstan to the north, and China to the east. The territory that now constitutes Tajikistan was previously home to several ancient cultures, including the city of Sarazm of the Neolithic and the Bronze Age, and was later home to kingdoms ruled by people of different faiths and cultures, including the Oxus civilization, Andronovo culture, Buddhism, Nestorian Christianity, Zoroastrianism, and Manichaeism. The area has been ruled by numerous empires and dynasties, including the Achaemenid Empire, Hephthalite Empire, Samanid Empire, Mongol Empire, Timurid dynasty, and the Russian Empire. As a result of the breakup of the Soviet Union Tajikistan became an independent nation in 1991. A civil war was fought almost immediately after independence, lasting from 1992 to 1997. Since the end of the war, newly established political stability and foreign aid have allowed the country's economy to grow. Tajikistan means the "Land of the Tajiks". The suffix "-stan" is Persian for "place of" or "country” and Tajik is, most likely, the name of a pre-Islamic (before the seventh century A.D.) tribe. According to the Library of Congress's 1997 Country Study of Tajikistan, it is difficult to definitively state the origins of the word "Tajik" because the term is "embroiled in twentieth-century political disputes about whether Turkic or Iranian peoples were the original inhabitants of Central Asia."
Geography. Tajikistan is landlocked, and is the smallest nation in Central Asia by area. It lies mostly between latitudes 36° and 41° N (a small area is north of 41°), and longitudes 67° and 75° E (a small area is east of 75°). It is covered by mountains of the Pamir range, and more than fifty percent of the country is over 3,000 meters (9,800 ft) above sea level. The only major areas of lower land are in the north (part of theFergana Valley), and in the southern Kofarnihon and Vakhsh river valleys, which form the Amu Darya. Dushanbe is located on the southern slopes above the Kofarnihon valley.
Climate. The climate of Tajikistan is moderate, sharp continental and dry. It is subtropical in low valleys, and cold in high mountains. That’s why it is possible to grow most sun loving cultures (including citric plants) and get 2-3 harvests per year. In high mountains of Tajikistan there are great supplies of ice and snow. Winter temperatures in valleys are from 0°C to +2°C, high in the mountains - to -27°C. In summer temperature in the valleys is from +23°C to +30, +35°C, in the mountains from +4°C to +15°C. The most precipitation falls in winter and spring.
Agriculture. Cotton and wheat are the two main cash crops in Tajikistan, cultivated on nearly 70% of the cropped area (30% under cotton, 36% under wheat, 9% under other cereals). Cotton fiber is Tajikistan's leading agricultural export commodity, contributing 16% of total exports. Cotton requires high temperatures and intensive irrigation, and it is primarily grown in hot river valleys: the Ferghana valley on the Syr Darya in Northern Tajikistan (Sughd Province), the Lower Kofarnihon and Vakhsh valleys in South-Western Khatlon, Kyzylsu and Panj valleys in South-Eastern Khatlon, and Gissar Valley stretching West of Dushanbe to the border with Uzbekistan around the middle course of Kofarnihon River. Khatlon province is the main cotton growing area in Tajikistan, contributing 60% of the cotton harvest; Ferghana valley in the North of Sughd province contributes 30% and Gissar valley (in the Region of Republican Subordination) another 10%. Wheat and barley are cultivated in rainfed areas, mostly in the Southern plains of Khatlon province. Rice, on the other hand, is grown in river valleys, where paddies can be easily created by flooding. The main rice producer in Tajikistan is Sughd province. Fully 44% of the rice harvest comes from Zeravshan and Fergana valleys in Sughd; another 36% is produced in the heavily irrigated Khatlon lowlands and the remaining 20% comes from Gissar valley, irrigated by the Kofarnihon river. Other crops include potatoes,vegetables, and melons, which are grown across the entire country. The North of the country produces apricots, pears, plums, apples, cherries, pomegranates, figs, and nuts. Fresh fruits are consumed locally, whereas dried fruits are a traditional export for Tajikistan (making up more than 1% of total exports in 2005, with Russia the main destination). Animals raised in Tajikistan include (in descending order of importance) chickens, cattle, sheep, goats, and horses. Beef, mutton, and poultry are the most important meat products; cow's milk, goat's milk, cheese, and wool are also important. Silk production exists, but remains a comparatively minor industry.
Rice. In the country, rice is cultivated in an average of 10800 ha of area and wheat croppage makes up 54 thousand tons. Average rice productivity in the country is 50 centner/ton. Rice penetration into Tajikistan and start of its cultivation couldn’t be earlier than 7th century B.C. Rice varieties were delivered to Tajikistan from Afghanistan, China, Iran and India. Major cultivated rice varieties are Japanese subspecies (japonica). The following varieties are basically cultivated in Tajikistan: VROS-3716, Dubovskiy, Devzira, Uzros, Nukus-2, Lazurniy and a new variety entitled Sarazm. Rice cultivation technology in Tajikistan doesn’t greatly differ from other countries. The main rice producing areas in Tajikistan are as follows: • In Khatlon region, wheat and rice are cultivated. There is the possibility of increasing the cultivation area to the 20,000 hectares. In Khatlon, rice production is more mechanized than other regions. • The province of Sughd, with its administrative capital of Khujand, lies in the northwest of the country. The main crops of this province are rice, corn and tobacco. There are two rice cultivation regions in Sughd province including Khujand (about 5-6 thousand ha) with direct seeding, and mechanized cultivation and Panjakent (about 6-7 thousand ha). • Tursunsoda (60 Km from Dushanbe): The main rice growing region area in the central part of Tajikistan with hard working farmers. Rainfall in the south (Khatlon) is more than north (Khujand), but due to Zarafshon river and the waters of the nearby mountains, rice acreage in the north of Tajikistan (Panjakent and Khujand) is more than central regions.