Country Official Name: Republic of Kazakhstan
Official Language: Kazakh (state), Russian (official)
Government Type: Democratic, secular, legal and social state
Major Cities: Astana, Almaty, Karaganda, Shymkent, Atyrau, Aktobe, Oskemen
Provinces: 1.Akmola, 2.Aktobe, 3.Almaty, 4.Almaty Province, 5.Astana Atyrau, 6.Baikonur, 7.East Kazakhstan, 8.Jambyl, 9.Karagandy, 10.Kostanay Kyzylorda, 11.Mangystau, 12.North Kazakhstan, 13.Pavlodar, 14.Sooth Kazakhstan, 15.Wast Kazakhstan
Ethnic Groups: Kazkh, Russian, Ukranian, Uzbek, Uighur, Tatar and German, and others
Holidays: Jan 1 New Year's Day, Jan 2 New Year's (Day 2) Jan 7 Orthodox Christmas Day, Mar 8 International Women's Day, Mar 9 MondayInternational Women's Day observed, Mar 20 equinox, Mar 21 Nauryz holiday, Mar 22 Nauryz, Mar 23 onday Nauryz observed, Mar 24 Nauryz (Day 2) Mar 25 Nauryz (Day 3), May 1 Unity Day May 7 efender of the Fatherland Day, May 9 Victory Day, May 11 Victory Day observed, June 21 June Solstice, Jul 6 Day of the Capital Aug 30 Constitution Day, Aug 31 Constitution Day observed, Sep 23 September equinox, Sep 23 Kurban Bairam, Dec 1 Day of the First President of the Republic of Kazakhstan,Dec 16 Independence Day, Dec 17 Independence Day (Day 2) Dec 22 December Solstice, Dec 31 New Year's Eve
Airport: Almaty International Airport
Agricultural Website: http://www.minagri.gov.kz
Area: 2,724,900 km (9, 2015)
Area under Rice Cultivation: 113000 ha
Rice Production Season: 1. Planting: Apr. - May 2. Harvesting: Sep. - Oct.
Population: 17,948,816 (62nd)
Currency: Tenge (KZT)
Calling Code: +7
Introduction. Kazakhstan, officially the Republic of Kazakhstan, is a contiguous transcontinental country in Central Asia, with its smaller part west of the Ural River in Europe. Kazakhstan is the world's largest landlocked country by land area and the ninth largest country in the world; its territory of 2,724,900 square ki lometers (1,052,100 sq mi) is larger than Western Europe. It has borders with (clockwise from the north) Russia, China, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, and Turkmenistan, and also adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea. The terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, steppe, taiga, rock canyons, hills, deltas, snow-capped mountains, and deserts. With an estimated 17 million people as of 2013 Kazakhstan is the 61 most populous country in the world, though its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometer (15 people per sq. mi.). The capital is Astana, where it was moved from Almaty in 1997.
While the word "Kazakh" is generally used to refer to people of ethnic Kazakh descent, including those living in China, Russia, Turkey, Uzbekistan and other neighboring countries, within the country both terms "Kazakh" or "Kazakhstani" are being used to describe all citizens of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. The ethnonym "Kazakh" is derived from an ancient Turkic word meaning "independent; a free spirit", reflecting the Kazakhs'nomadic horseback culture. The Persian suffix "-stan" (see Indo-Iranian languages) means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan means "land of the Kazakhs".
Geography. As it extends across both sides of the Ural River, Kazakhstan is one of only two landlocked countries in the world that lies on two continents (the other is Azerbaijan). With an area of 2,700,000 square kilometers (1,000,000 sq mi) - equivalent in size to Western Europe - Kazakhstan is the ninth-largest country and largest landlocked country in the world. While it was part of the Soviet Union, Kazakhstan lost some of its territory to China's and some to Uzbekistan's Karakalpakstan. It shares borders of 6,846 kilometers (4,254 mi) with Russia, 2,203 kilometers (1,369 mi) with Uzbekistan, 1,533 kilometers (953 mi) with China, 1,051 kilometers (653 mi) with Kyrgyzstan, and 379 kilometers (235 mi) with Turkmenistan. Major cities include Astana, Almaty, Karagandy, Shymkent, Atyrau and Oskemen. It lies between latitudes 40° and 56° N, and longitudes 46° and 88° E. While located primarily in Asia, a small portion of Kazakhstan is also located west of the Urals in Eastern Europe.
Climate. The territory of Kazakhstan stretches for more than 3000 km from west to east and almost 2000 km from north to south. Climatic peculiarities are due to the amplitude of the country. Whereas temperature can hit 50 degrees below zero in the north in winter, in summer in the south melons ripen and cotton grow. The climate of Kazakhstan (excluding south) is sharply continental with average temperature between -4 °C and -19 °C in January and between +19…+26°C in July. In winter temperature may decrease down to -45°C, and in summer rise up to +30. The highest temperature in Kazakhstan was registered in the city of Turkestan (South Kazakhstan) with +49 С°. The lowest was observed in the city of Atbasar (Akmola region) -57 С°. Besides, Astana is the coldest city in the world after Ulan-Bator however it is not an obstacle for the capital city to warm guests with its warm hospitality.
Agriculture. accounts for approximately 5% of Kazakhstan's GDP. Grain, potatoes, vegetables, melons and livestock are the most important agricultural commodities. Agricultural land occupies more than 846,000 square kilometres (327,000 sq mi). The available agricultural land consists of 205,000 square kilometres (79,000 sq mi) of arable land and 611,000 square kilometres (236,000 sq mi) of pasture and hay land. Over 80% of the country’s total area is classified as agricultural land, including almost 70% occupied by pasture. Its arable land has the second highest availability per inhabitant (1.5 hectares).
Chief livestock products are dairy products, leather, meat, and wool. The country's major crops include wheat, barley, cotton, and rice. Wheat exports, a major source of hard currency, rank among the leading commodities in Kazakhstan's export trade. In 2003 Kazakhstan harvested 17.6 million tons of grain in gross, 2.8% higher compared to 2002. Kazakh agriculture still has many environmental problems from mismanagement during its years in the Soviet Union. Some Kazakh wine is produced in the mountains to the east of Almaty.
Rice. In the Republic of Kazakhstan, most of the land is classified as steppe or desert with annual average precipitation of 100-200 mm. In the northern part, wheat is a predominant crop, whereas rice, cotton, fodder and fruit are produced in the southern part. The present total cropped area is nearly 14% of the total area of Kazakhstan. The irrigated land of total 7.6 million ha in the Aral Sea basin became one of the big food supplying sources of the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe. Total rice cropped area in the Aral Sea basin is 428,600 ha, of which 56% is in the Syrdarya basin, and the remaining 44% in the Amudarya basin. While rice occupies only 5.6% of the irrigated area, its water requirement is about 15% of the total irrigation requirement. Introduction of rice engineering systems nominated Kazakhstan to the number of the leading rice producing countries of Central Asia. In Kazakhstan, irrigated land is located mainly in the Kazakhstan part of the Syrdarya River basin, which is concentrated in South-Kazakhstan and the Kzyl-Orda areas. Most of the rice cropping area in Kazakhstan is also distributed in two regions (Almaty and Kyzylorda). In connection with the regions’ rice-growing specialization, irrigated lands under the soil, climatic and other terms are divided into three areas of irrigated agriculture: Zhanakorgan-Shiely, Kyzylorda and Kazalinsk-Aral. The present total rice area in these regions is about 113,000 ha, which is equivalent to 17% of the total irrigated area. More than 80% of the total rice production in Kazakhstan depends on the rice growing area in the Kzyl-Orda. Kyzylorda region covering a space of 248,996 km2, is situated in the area of the Asian deserts, in the extensive Turan lowland with a flat relief, along the lower flow of the Syrdarya river. Rice cropping area in the Kzyl-Orda region had increased from the 1940s, reaching 100,000 ha in 1985. Since 1985, however, the rice producing area has gradually reduced, while the total irrigated area has slightly increased. The present yield is estimated as 4.5 to 6 t/ha and the average yield has a tendency to decrease.